KATHMANDU: NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in California has received a message from Mars. The message was sent by NASA’s Ingenuity helicopter to Mars.
The helicopter is currently in the Jejero Crater at 18.38 77 N 77.58 according to the 30 available map series of Mars, the Syrtis Major Quadrangle. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) Astrology Research Program has a map of Mars with longitudes 270 ° to 315 ° west and latitudes 0 ° to 30 ° north.
‘Jejero’ means lake in Bosnian. Bosnia and Herzegovina has a small town called Jejero. Scientists believe that there used to be a river in this part of Mars. Later, the river dried up and became a lake, and this area of Mars became a delta.
The name of this place on Mars is Jezero Crater, the word used for the lake in the Bosnian language. The Jejero Crater has a diameter of 49 km. NASA had scheduled the 2020 landing site of its Mars mission in 2018.
This time, NASA planned to land its state-of-the-art rover Perseverance in the Jezero crater on Mars. NASA planned to launch the rover to Mars on July 30, 2020, and the rover traveled nearly 200 days to reach Jezero Crater on February 18, 2021.
Helicopter Ingenity sent a message to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory about its health and said it was ready for the next mission. Within a few days, Ingenuity set a record by flying. If the Ingenuity flight is successful, it will be the first such event on the surface of any celestial body other than Earth.
To date, there have been no attempts to fly helicopters anywhere other than on Earth. No attempt has been made to fly a helicopter to the moon, which has been reached by humans six times.
Ingenuity said in the message that it and Rover Perseverance were working on their base station plan. This helicopter will be ‘attached’ to the rover for 30 days. The Rover Perseverance has an electrical box that secures the communication between the helicopter Ingenuity and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, as well as ensures the helicopter’s route and landing.
Mission Control, 200 million km from California, tries to protect the helicopter from the extreme cold of Mars. The daytime temperature on Mars is 20 degrees Celsius, but the nights here are very cold minus 87 degrees Celsius. And, again, Mars, like Earth, has 24,622 hours (23 hours 56 minutes a day on Earth). Night comes in 12 hours. Scientists at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory have to turn on the heater in the helicopter as the temperature rises.
Batteries are attached to the helicopter to operate the heater. The battery should also be charged. Helicopters are currently being powered by Rover Perseverance. But once the helicopter exits the rover’s base station on its flight, it recharges its energy from the sun.
For this, solar panels are connected in it. After the flight, it lands and returns to the base station to rest. This time NASA’s ‘Rover Perseverance’ is a machine powered by ‘nuclear power’. For the first time, nuclear power is being used anywhere other than on Earth in this American Mars mission.
The Jet Propulsion Laboratory plans to fly the helicopter 30 days after Mars, or 30 days after Sol Day or Martian Day. A day on Mars is a few minutes longer than Earth, that is, 24 hours, 39 minutes, 35.244 seconds (about 43 minutes longer than Earth).
For 30 days on Mars, Ingenity stays in the electrical box at the helicopter base station, Rover Perseverance, to prepare for the first flight. According to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, if the helicopter could take off and fly in the skies of Mars for a few minutes, they would consider it 90 percent successful. And, if the helicopter can take off, fly and spend a few minutes in the sky of Mars and successfully land at the base station, four other flights will also be operated.
The helicopter is equipped with a number of cameras, microphones and other scientific instruments to record sound. The helicopter can also interact with scientists at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. For the first time, scientists are going to fly a helicopter to a place other than Earth. Scientists are getting very excited and excited about this. It is not known whether the helicopter can fly under atmospheric pressure above the surface of Mars.
Of course, before this American Mars mission, the United States has already landed its four rovers ‘Sojourner’, ‘Opportunity’, ‘Spirit’ and ‘Curiosity’ on Mars. The first American expedition, the Viking 1, landed on Mars on July 20, 1976. Launched on August 20, 1975, Viking 1 took 11 months to reach Mars.
Shortly afterwards, Viking 2 landed on Mars on September 3, 1976. All the failed American attempts before this and all the successful American after this